الخميس، 20 يونيو، 2013

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY CURRICULA: A CASE STUDY OF SUDAN AND CAMEROON SECONDARY EDUCATION




                    OPEN UNIVERSITY OF SUDAN (OUS)
                             EDUCATION PROGRAMME

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY CURRICULA: A CASE STUDY OF SUDAN AND CAMEROON SECONDARY EDUCATION

A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE REQUIREMENTS OF MASTER DEGREE IN EDUCATION (CURRICULUM AND TEACHING METHODOLOGY)

                             BY: UMANG MOSTAPHA

SUPERVISOR:   PROF. MOHAMMED MUZZAMIL
                                    MARCH 2013


Acknowledgements
            I will like to give special thanks to God Almighty for his blessings and guidance throughout my studies.  I wish to thank him for the good health and for keeping me stable throughout this period.
Special gratitude goes to my supervisor Dr. Mohammed Muzzamil. Thank you for the guidance you gave me which inspired and made me able to stay focused and motivated. In addition, I wish to thank you for the patience in reading over and over the drafts copies. I achieved so much from your comments and this helped me a lot to come with my thesis. May the Almighty God bless and protect you abundantly.
I want to express sincere thanks to the entire staff of the OUS for their assistance and guidance.
Special thanks to Dr. Omer Elsheikh Hago, Dr. Fad Allah Ismail Ali, Mr. Abdulgani and Hassan Gogo for providing me with all the support and encouragement that guarded me from the unset to the sunset.
Finally, I want to express my gratitude to the Vice Chancellor Prof. Faisal Abdalla Elhag who allowed me to study in Open University of Sudan as a special case.









Abstract
This study aims to compare the chemistry curricula of the Sudan and Cameroon, at secondary schools, on the basis of their educational objectives, content, teaching methods and aids as well as teachers’ training and evaluation.
To realize the objectives of the study, a comparative table, interviews and questionnaire were employed. The study population centered within six chemistry curriculum expert working in curriculum offices, universities, teachers training centers, secondary schools and research centers.
The findings of the study showed that both chemistry curricula have similar content with different degree of depth. Both contents are isolated from their educational objectives. More approximately, both chemistry curricula continue to enjoy glorious obscurity in the teaching and learning of chemistry. Better still, both chemistry curricula have failed to lay the foundation upon which scientific break-through can be built upon.
The research was conducted in five chapters. In the first chapter, the researcher attempts to explain the background of the study, highlight the objectives, statement of the problem, state the significance, limitation and methodology of the study. Chapter two attempts the relevant literature. Chapter three presents the methodology of the study. In the chapter four, the researcher summaries and analyses the result of the study. Chapter five contain the conclusions and some recommendations resulting from the study such as:
1)      Thought-provoking laboratories learning activities should be given central pragmatic rule in both chemistry curricula. 
2)      A similar study should be conducted on other science subjects such Physics and Biology.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         



مستخلص الدراسة
        تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى مقارنة مقرر الكيمياء في مدارس الثانوية في السودان والكميرون من ناحية الأهداف والمحتويات والتقييم وطرق التدريس، بالإضافة إلى تدريب المعلمين .
       استخدم الباحث جداول المقارنة والمقابلات والاستبانة لتحقيق أهداف الدراسة . وركزت العينة الدراسية على ستة خبراء في مجال مناهج الكيمياء يعملون أساتذة جامعات، وفي مراكز البحوث العلمية، والمدارس الثانوية، ومراكز تدريب المعلمين.
      وأوضحت الدراسة بأن مقرري الكيمياء في السودان والكميرون متشابهان من ناحية المحتوى، مع بعض الاختلاف في العمق .
     هنالك اختلاف كبير بين محتوى المقررات وأهدافها التعليمية، حيث أوضحت الدراسة أنَ مقررات الكيمياء في السودان والكميرون غير مواكبة للطرق الحديثة من ناحية التدريس والتعليم، وبالتالي لم تحقق وضعا أساسيا معينا للاحتراف العلمي المنشود .
     يشتمل البحث على خمسة فصول، يحتوي الفصل الأول على خلفية الدراسة ، الأهداف ، مشكلة البحث ، أهميته وحدود البحث ومنهجيته؛ وتناول الفصل الثاني الدراسات السابقة؛ وتطرق الفصل الثالث لمنهجية البحث؛ والفصل الرابع اشتمل على تحليل وتاريخ الدراسة؛ أما الفصل الخامس فقد احتوى على التوصيات ونتائج الدراسة؛ مثل :-
1-  ينبغي الحث والتركيز على الجانب التطبيقي للنشاطات المختبرية في كلا المنهجين في السودان والكاميرون.
2-      ينبغي أن تكون هنالك دراسة مماثلة في المواد العلمية الأخرى؛ مثل الفيزياء والأحياء.



                                                         TABLE OF CONTENT
ACRONYMS                                                                                                                                                                 IX
CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY                                                                                           1
1.1 Introduction                                                                                                                                                                   2
1.2 The Problem of the study                                                                                                                                     3
1.3 Questions of the study                                                                                                                                          4
1.4 Objectives of the study                                                                                                                                         4
1.5 Significance of the study                                                                                                                                       5
1.6 Limits of study                                                                                                                                                5
1.7. Population and Sample of the Study                                                                                                                6
1.8 Methodology of the study                                                                                                                                   6
1.9. Definition of Terms                                                                                                                                              6                                                                                                                
CHAPTER 2: (PART ONE) THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY                                                              8
SECTION ONE: IMPORTANCE OF COMPARATIVE STUDY……………………………………………………………………...9
SECTION TWO: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION CURRICULUM………………………………………11
2.2.1 Introduction                                                                                                                                                     11
2.2.2 Concept of Science                                                                                                                                         11
2.2.3 Science Education                                                                                                                                        12
2.2.4 Importance of Chemistry as a Discipline                                                                                                    15
2.2.5 Curriculum Definitions                                                                                                                                   16
2.2.6 Characteristics of a Good Curriculum                                                                                                         19
2.2.7 Curriculum Development                                                                                                                              19
2.2.7.1 Common Procedures of Curriculum Development                                                                               20
2.2.7.2.1 Situation Analysis                                                                                                                                     21
2.2.8 Curriculum Evaluation                                                                                                                                    22
  2.2.9 Curriculum for Secondary Schools                                                                                                             23
2.2.10 Objectives of Secondary Schools Education                                                                                            23
2.2.11 Curriculum and the Teacher                                                                                                                       23
2.2.12 Curriculum and Students                                                                                                                            24
2.2.13 Development of Science Education Curriculum                                                                                     24
2.2.14 Teaching Methods in Chemistry Education                                                                                             25
2.2.15 Teachers Training                                                                                                                                          30
2.2.15.1 Teachers Education in Sudan                                                                                                                   30
2.2.15.2 Teachers Education in Cameroon                                                                                                           35
SECTION THREE: THE BACKGROUND OF THE SUDANESE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM……………………………….39
2.3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                                                     39
2.3.2 Early Foundations of Sudanese Education                                                                                                 40
2.3.3 Missionary Education                                                                                                                                      40
2.3.4Mahdist Reforms & Prohibitions                                                                                                                   41
2.3.5 Condominium Educational Policy                                                                                                                 41
2.3.6 Post-independence Arabization&Islamization                                                                                          45
2.3.7 Current Educational system in Sudan                                                                                                          50
SECTION FOUR: The BACKGROUND OF CAMEROON EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM……………………………………..54
2.4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                                                      54
2.4.1 Genesis of Western Education in Cameroon                                                                                             55
2.4.2 German colonial educational policy                                                                                                            55
2.4.3 The French colonial educational policy in Cameroon                                                                              57
2.4.4 The British colonial educational policy                                                                                                       58
2.4.5 Post Colonial Reforms                                                                                                                                    60
2.4.6 Federal Education Reform                                                                                                                             60
2.4.7 Reforms in East Cameroon (Francophone)                                                                                                61
2.4.8 Reforms in West Cameroon (Anglophone)                                                                                                62
2.4.9 Current Educational System in Cameroon                                                                                                 63
PART TWO: RELATED STUDIES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..74
CHAPTER 3 - : METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY                                                                                                     79
3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                                                          80
3.2 Instrumentation                                                                                                                                                  80
3.3 Procedure                                                                                                                                                             80
CHAPTER-4: ANALYSES AND DISCUSSION                                                                                                     82
4.1. Introduction                                                                                                                                                        83
4.2 Interview and comments of Sudanese experts on the chemistry curriculum for secondary education:                                                                                                                                                                   83
4.3 Interview and comments of Cameroonian experts on the chemistry curriculum for secondary schools:                                                                                                                                                                        93
4.4 A comparison between the Cameroon chemistry curriculum and the Sudan chemistry curriculum at secondary school level.                                                                                                                          101             
4.5. The researcher comments on the above schedule for chemistry                                                    108       
CHAPTER 5 - : Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestion for feature Studies                                   109  
5.1. Introduction:                                                                                                                                         110              
5.2. Findings                                                                                                                                                  110             
5.3. Conclusions and Discussions                                                                                                                113          
5.4. Recommendations                                                                                                                                116           
5.5. Suggestions for further research work:                                                                                                     117
REFERENCES                                                                                                                                                             119
APPENDIX 1: Sudanese chemistry curriculum for secondary education.
APPENDIX 2: Cameroon chemistry curriculum for secondary education.
APPENDIX 3: The interview questions used in the study.
 APPENDIX 4: the questionnaire used in the study.









Acronyms
UNESCO:  United Nation Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation
WWI:         World War I
WWII:        World War II
HE:             Higher Education
ENS:          EcoleNormaleSupérieure
ACU:         Association of Commonwealth Universities     
MINESUP: Ministry of Higher Education      
MINISEC:  Ministry of Secondary Education
IMF:          International Monetary Fund
UN:           United Nation
UK           United Kingdom
GCE:        General Certificate of Education
UB:         University of Buea
NEA:National Education Association
NOS         Nature Of Science
CIS        Cooperative Instructional Strategy
ISETI In- service Education Training Institute
MoGE    Ministry of General Education
MoHESRMinistry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
OUS      Open University of  Sudan
ODL: Open and distance education
DIPES I: Diploma for Teaching in First Cycle Secondary Ed.
DIPES II: Post graduate Diploma for Teaching in Second Cycle Secondary Ed
List of Tables
Table 1: The different educational system in Cameroon and Sudan……………………………………..71
Table 2: Summary of Cameroon educational system……………………………………………………..72
Table 3: Summary of Sudan educational system………………………………………………………….73
Table 4: The comparison between the Cameroon and Sudanese curriculums …………………………..101
List of figures
Figure 1:    Elements of Science………………………………………………………….………………14
Figure 2:    Triangular metaphor of teaching…….……………………………………………………….26
Figure 3:   Tetrahedral   metaphor of teaching …………………………………………….…………….27










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