الأحد، 5 أغسطس، 2012

The Effectiveness of Using Realia

Sudan University of Science and Technology

College of Graduate Studies
The Effectiveness of Using Realia
in Teaching English Vocabulary


فاعلية استخدام ذوات الأشياء في تدريس مفردات اللغة الإنجليزية


A thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
Of  the Requirements for  M.Ed in ELT
By                                                          
                                                            
ElSiddig Babikir Mohamed                                


2012AD






الآيـــــــــــــــــــة
قال تعالى:

( وَقُلِ اعْمَلُواْ فَسَيَرَى اللّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ {105)
صدق الله العظيم
سورة الأنفال


Dedication
 To my dear father.
  To my dear mother.
To my dear wife.

Acknowledgements
      With pleasure, I would like to express , my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Dr.Omer Elshekh Hago,  my supervisor for his continuous guidance and encouragement.
      I respectfully thank  him not only for his thoughtful insights about clarity coherence, but also for his high standards and valuable comments during the ups and downs in research preparation , that gave me confidence in myself and in my work . Deep thank to my wife for her kind help and my brothers Eltayb & Dr. Abdulrahman for their support and kindness.
       Finally if the study appears to have merits, my sincere thanks are due to Allah, but if fault is found it is mine.  
Abstract

     This study attempts to shed light on the effectiveness of using  realia in teaching English vocabulary for the secondary students. It tries to focus on suitable way of teaching vocabulary by using realia. The research questions were stated in the form of hypotheses which were to achieve the aims. The research points out three hypotheses, using realia in teaching vocabulary has a significant role on enhance students' vocabulary level, most of English teachers in secondary schools have attitudes towards using realia in teaching vocabulary, using realia encountered by difficulties when using them in teaching vocabulary. The subjects of this study are thirty teachers from Khartoum state. The questionnaire is a tool that for collecting data. The important question of this study is, What are the difficulties which encountered students when using realia in teaching vocabulary. The study presents some recommendations, the most important one is that "teachers could use realia because it is one of the current techniques in teaching English vocabulary"    







مستخلص الدراسة

             يحاول الباحث في هذه الدراسة إلقاء الضوء على استخدام ذوات الأشياء وأثرها في تدريس مفردات اللغة الإنجليزية من خلال التدريس وجعلها أكثر فاعليه ،ناقش الباحث ثلاثة فرضيات وأهمها إلى أي مدى تساعد ذوات الأشياء في تحسين مستوى الطالب في معاني اللغة الإنجليزية ,لتقود بدورها إلى الأهداف ,كما أستخدم الباحث الاستبانه كأداة لجمع البيانات من ثلاثون معلما للغة الإنجليزية بالمرحلة الثانوية بولاية الخرطوم .كما أن أهم التوصيات التي خرجت بها الدراسة هي : معلمي اللغة الإنجليزية في المرحلة الثانوية ووجب عليهم استخدم ذوات الأشياء كتقنية حديثة في تدريس مفردات اللغة الإنجليزية .
Table of contents
Topic
Page
The version
I
Dedication
II
Acknowledgement
III
Abstract
IV
ِAbstract( Arabic Version)
V
Table of contents
VI
List of Table
VII
CHPTER ONE: Introduction
1.0 Over View
1
1.1 Statement of the problem
1
1.2 Objectives of the study
1
1-3 Questions of the Study
2
1-4Hypotheses of the Study
2
1-5 The Significance of the Study
2
1-6 Limits of the Study
2
1-7 Definition of Terms
3
CHPTER TWO: Theoretical Framework and Literature Review

2.0     Introduction
4
2.1     Vocabulary
4
2.2 Teaching Vocabulary
4
2.2.1  Form (pronunciation and spelling)
5
2.2.1.1 Pronunciation
5
2.2.1.2 Spelling
6
2.2.2  Synonyms
6
2.2.4  Antonyms
7
2.2.5  Hyponymy
7
2.2.6  Collocations
7
2.2.7  Denotation
8
2.2.8  Connotation
8
2.2.9  Appropriateness
8
2.3  Rialia
9
2.3.1 Using Realia
10
2.3.2 Using realia in a classroom
10
2.3.3 The appropriateness of the materials
14
2.3.4  Common Realia
15

2.3.5 Realia for young learners

15
2.4 Previous Studies                  
16
2.5 Summary
18
CHTER THREE : Methodology

3.0  introduction
19
3.1The Population
19
3.2The Study Tool
19
3.2.1 Sample
20
3.3 Reliability and Validity of the questionnaire
22
3.6 Summary
24
CHTER FOUR : Data Analysis

4.1 Data Analysis and Hypotheses Testing
25
4.2 Discussion
49
CHPTER FIVE: Conclusion & Recommendations

5.0 Summary of results  
50
5.1 Summary of the findings
50
5.2 Recommendations for further studies
50
References
52
Questionnaire
53


List of Figures
Table No
Topic
Pages
3.1
The frequency distribution for the study respondents according to the qualification
34
3.2
The frequency distribution for the study  respondents according to years of Experiences.
35
3.3

 The statistical risibility and validity of the sample about the study questionnaire
37
 4.1
The statistical reliability and validity of the pre-test sample about the study questionnaire
42
4.2
Frequency distribution table for first hypothesis
44
4.3
Frequency distribution table for second hypothesis
45
4.4
Frequency distribution table for third hypothesis
50
4.5
Chi-square test results for respondents’ answers about first hypothesis
51
4.6
Chi-square test results for respondents’ answers about second hypothesis
55
4.7
Chi-square test results for respondents’ answers about third hypothesis
56
 4.8
The marks of student's test
60
4.9
descriptive for overall test
60

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.0 Overview
 English is an international language. It is the bridge to the outside world, because it is the language of science and technology in addition to the new discoveries in the world. It is very significant to learn English as the important language in the world. 
To learn a language one must learn  it's vocabulary (Stole, 2005). Vocabulary is a must for learning a language. Without vocabulary one cannot string together words in sentences and without these fundamentals, learning becomes impossible, both on literary or oral levels. 
 There are numerous techniques concerned with vocabulary presentation if teachers want students to remember new vocabulary. They need to be learnt in context, practiced and then revised to prevent students from forgetting.  Teachers must make sure that students have understood the new words which will be remembered better if introduced in a memorable way.    
1.1 Statement of the problem
There are numerous techniques concerned with vocabulary presentation. In spite of that vocabulary teaching is a real problem in Sudanese secondary schools. When the researcher was working in secondary schools and taught English language, he came a cross the word realia and there were many questions. Why not using realia in teaching English vocabulary? Will realia be effective in teaching English vocabulary? and if so, how?
1.2 Objectives 
 1-To see how successful the use of realia in teaching English vocabulary could improve the students' vocabulary level.
2- To examine the secondary school teachers' attitudes and opinions towards using realia in teaching English vocabulary.  
3-To examine the difficulties which encountered when using realia in teaching vocabulary.
1.3 Questions of the Study 
 This study provides answers for the following questions:
1-    To what extent does realia have a significant role on enhance students' vocabulary level?
2-What are the opinions of English teachers toward using realia in teaching English vocabulary.
3-To what extent does realia encountered by difficulties when using in teaching vocabulary.
1.4 Hypotheses of the Study
1-Using realia in teaching English vocabulary has a significant role on   enhance students' vocabulary level.  
2-  Most English teachers in secondary schools have negative attitudes    towards using realia in teaching vocabulary.
3- Using realia encountered by difficulties when using them in teaching vocabulary.
1.5  Significance of the Study
 The study addresses one of the most important roles of realia in teaching vocabulary. As for contribution to knowledge, it is intended to increase one's understanding of the effectiveness of realia in teaching vocabulary. Also it is expected to provide some deep insight into teaching vocabulary.  
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The study is carried out with respect to the following limitations:
1-    Location: Sharg Elneel Locality.
2-    Time: The study is limited to the academic year 2011-2012.
3-    Theme: The study is limited to The Effectiveness of Using Realia in Teaching English Vocabulary in Secondary Schools.
1.7 Definition of Terms
      The following words are the basic terms with their proper definition as the researcher uses them in the study.
·       Teaching: (Hughes,1986) states that. Teaching means (causing to learn) nothing has been given until it has been learnt. Teaching is more than the efficient delivery of thoroughly prepared lessons.
·        Learning:Abbott and Wingard ( 1981)  state that learning is something that people normally do all through their lives –there doesn't have to be as a teacher. But no one has ever seen it happening, as an activity it is invisible.
·       Vocabulary: Kamil & Hiebert( 2008) defined vocabulary as knowledge of words and word meanings. However, vocabulary is more complex than these definitions suggests: The words come in two forms = Oral and written. According to dictionary "total number of words that make up languages".
·         Realia: Kelly (1976) states that there is some disagreement in the literature as to exactly what constitutes realia. It can refer either to objects in the learner's own environment used to illustrate vocabulary in the L2 or to objects specific to the culture of the L2 used for the same purpose. In the spirit of the former definition, we shall use the term to refer to objects of any origin used to illustrate vocabulary and structure in the L2.  

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